ื‘ืžืกื’ืจืช ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ืื™ืฉื•ืจย ืฉืœ ืžืกืจื™ื ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืชื™ื™ื ื‘ืื™ืจื•ืคื”, ืคืจืกืžื” EFSA ืžืงื‘ืฅ ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ ืฉืœ ื—ื•ื•ืช ื“ืขืช ืœื’ื‘ื™ ืžืกืจื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื ืžืชื™ื™ื—ืกื™ื ืœืžื—ืœื•ืช ืื• ืœื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช ื•ื”ืชืคืชื—ื•ืช ื™ืœื“ื™ื (General function claims). ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ื”ื“ื—ื™ื™ื” ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื”, ืฉื–ื›ื” ื›ื‘ืจ ืœื‘ื™ืงื•ืจื•ืช ื ื•ืงื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืื™ืจื•ืคื”, ื ื™ื›ืจ ื’ื ื‘ืžืงื‘ืฅ ื–ื” ืฉื”ืชื™ื™ื—ืก ืœ 442 ืžืกืจื™ื. ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”"ืžืคืกื™ื“ื™ื" ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืžื ื•ืช ืงื‘ื•ืฆื” ืฉืœ ื—ื™ื™ื“ืงื™ื ืคืจื•ื‘ื™ื•ื˜ื™ื™ื ืฉืžืกืจื™ื ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืชื™ื™ื ื”ืงื•ืฉืจื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ื›ืชื ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืคื—ืชื” ืฉืœ ืžื™ืงืจื•ืื•ืจื’ื ื™ื–ืžื™ื ืคืชื•ื’ื ื™ื™ื ื‘ืžืขื™, ืื• ื”ืฉืคืขื” ืขืœ ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ื—ื™ืกื•ืŸ, ืœื ืื•ืฉืจื•. ื’ื ื”ืงืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ื˜ื-ืงืจื•ื˜ืŸ, ืœื™ืงื•ืคืŸ ื•ืœื•ื˜ืื™ืŸ (ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื‘ื ืคืจื“) ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื’ื ื” ืขืœ DNA, ื—ืœื‘ื•ื ื™ื ื•ืœื™ืคื™ื“ื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ื—ื™ืžืฆื•ืŸ ืื• ื”ื’ื ื” ืžืคื ื™ ื ื–ืงื™ ืงืจื™ื ืช ืฉืžืฉ ื ื“ื—ื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ EFSA. ย ื‘ EFSA ืฆื™ื™ื ื• ื›ื™ ื”ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ื”ืขื™ืงืจื™ื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ื”ื’ื“ืจื” ืœื ืžืกืคืงืช ืฉืœ ื”ืจื›ื™ื‘ ื”ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ ืขืœื™ื• ืžื‘ื•ืกืก ื”ืžืกืจ, ื”ื™ืขื“ืจ ื”ื•ื›ื—ื•ืช ื›ื™ ื”ืืคืงื˜ ื”ื ื˜ืขืŸ ืื›ืŸ ืžื•ืขื™ืœ ืœืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ืื• ืฉื™ืคื•ืจ ืฉืœ ืชืคืงื•ื“ื™ ื”ื’ื•ืฃ, ืื• ื”ื™ืขื“ืจ ื“ื™ื•ืง ืœื’ื‘ื™ ื”ืžืกืจ ื”ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืชื™ ื”ื ื˜ืขืŸ.

ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืจืคื•ืื™ ื”ื•ื ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื”ืžื™ื•ืขื“ ืœืขื ื•ืช ืขืœ ื”ืฆืจื›ื™ื ื”ืชื–ื•ื ืชื™ื™ื ื”ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ื™ื ื”ื ื•ื‘ืขื™ื ืžืžื—ืœื” ืื• ืžืžืฆื‘ ืจืคื•ืื™ ืžืกื•ื™ื, ื•ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื—ื•ืœื™ื ื”ื ืžืฆืื™ื ืชื—ืช ืžืขืงื‘ ืจืคื•ืื™. ืขืค"ื™ ื”ื”ื’ื“ืจื•ืช, ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืจืคื•ืื™ ื”ื•ื ืœืžืขืฉื” ืคื•ืจืžื•ืœืฆื™ื” ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ืช ืฉืžื™ื•ืขื“ืช ืœื—ื•ืœื™ื ืฉืขืงื‘ ืžื—ืœืชื ืื™ื ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ื™ื–ื•ื ื™ื ืžืžื–ื•ืŸ ืจื’ื™ืœ ืื• ื›ื–ื” ืฉืขื‘ืจ ืžื•ื“ื™ืคื™ืงืฆื™ื”. ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืจืคื•ืื™ ืื™ื ื• ืžื™ื•ืขื“ ืœื›ืœืœ ื”ืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ื™ื” ื•ื”ื•ื ืื™ื ื• "ืกืชื" ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืคื•ื ืงืฆื™ื•ื ืืœื™ ื”ืžื›ื™ืœ ืจื›ื™ื‘ ื‘ืขืœ ืืคืงื˜ ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืชื™ ื›ืœืฉื”ื•.

ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ื ืคืจืกืžื” EFSA ืงื•ื‘ืฅ ื ื•ืกืฃ ืฉืœ ื—ื•ื•ืช ื“ืขืช ืœื’ื‘ื™ ืžืกืจื™ื ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืชื™ื™ื ื‘ืื™ืจื•ืคื”. ื‘ืžืกื’ืจืช ื”ืชืงื ื” ื”ืื™ืจื•ืคื™ืช ื”ื—ื“ืฉื” ื™ื—ืกื™ืช ืœืžืกืจื™ื ืชื–ื•ื ืชื™ื™ื ื•ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืชื™ื™ื, ืžืชื‘ืฆืข ื‘ืฉื ืชื™ื™ื ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื•ืช ืชื”ืœื™ืš ืฉืœ ื™ืฆื™ืจืช ืจืฉื™ืžื” ื’ื ืจื™ืช ื•"ื™ื™ืฉื•ืจ ืงื•" ืœื’ื‘ื™ ืžืกืจื™ื ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืชื™ื™ื ืืฉืจ ืื™ื ื ืงืฉื•ืจื™ื ืœืžื—ืœื•ืช ืื• ืœื”ืชืคืชื—ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื™ืœื“ื™ื (ื ืงืจืื™ื ื’ื – General claims under article 13.1). ื”ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื›ืœืœ ื‘ืฉืœื‘ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืื™ืกื•ืฃ ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืกืจื™ื ืžืกื•ื’ ื–ื” ืฉื”ื™ื• ื‘ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืฉื•ืง ื”ืื™ืจื•ืคื™ ืœืจืฉื™ืžื” ืื—ืช ื›ื•ืœืœืช. ื”ืจืฉื™ืžื”, ืฉื›ืœืœื” ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืœื ืคื—ื•ืช ืž 44,000 ืžืกืจื™ื, ืฆื•ืžืฆืžื” ืข"ื™ ื”ืจืฉื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ืื™ืจื•ืคื™ื•ืช ืœ 4,185 ืžืกืจื™ื ื•ื”ื•ืขื‘ืจื” ืœื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ื•ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ืข"ื™ EFSA.

ืื ืคื ื™ื›ื ืœืฉื•ืง ื”ืื™ืจื•ืคื™, ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ืžื”ื• ืžืขืžื“ื• ืฉืœ ื”ืžื•ืฆืจ ืฉืœื›ื ื‘ืื™ืจื•ืคื” ื•ื”ืื ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืคืœ ืชื—ืช ื”ื”ื’ื“ืจื” ืฉืœ "ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื—ื“ืฉ"ย  – Novel Food. ืชืงื ื” ืื™ืจื•ืคื™ืช ืžืกืคืจ 258/1997 ืงื•ื‘ืขืช ื›ื™ ืžื•ืฆืจื™ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื•ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœืžื–ื•ืŸ (ื›ื•ืœืœ ืชื•ืกืคื™ ืชื–ื•ื ื”), ืฉืœื ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™ ื‘ืฉื•ืง ื”ืื™ืจื•ืคื™ ื›ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืœื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืœืคื ื™ ืžืื™ ,1997 ื™ื™ื—ืฉื‘ื• "ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื—ื“ืฉ" ื”ื“ื•ืจืฉ ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืจืฉื•ื™ื•ืช ื˜ืจื ื›ื ื™ืกื” ืœืฉื•ืง.

ืื ืคื™ืชื—ืชื ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ื—ื“ืฉ ื•ืืชื ืžืขื•ื ื™ื™ื ื™ื ืœืฉื•ื•ืง ืื•ืชื• ื›ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ืœืžื–ื•ืŸ ื‘ืืจื”"ื‘, ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืกื™ื›ื•ื™ื™ื ืฉืชื™ื“ืจืฉื• ืœืืฉืจ ืื•ืชื• ื› GRAS ื˜ืจื ืฉื™ื•ื•ืงื•. ื‘ืžื™ืœื™ื ืคืฉื•ื˜ื•ืช ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ื”ื•ื›ื—ื”, ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ืชื”ืœื™ืš ืžื•ื‘ื ื”, ืฉื”ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ื”ื—ื“ืฉ ื‘ื˜ื•ื— ืœืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืชื—ืช ืชื ืื™ ื”ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ืฉื”ื•ื’ื“ืจื•, ื›ืœื•ืžืจ, ื‘ืฉื™ืœื•ื‘ ื‘ืžื•ืฆืจื™ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืžื•ื’ื“ืจื™ื ื•ื‘ืžื™ื ื•ื ื™ื ืžื•ื’ื“ืจื™ื. ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื“ืขืช ื›ื™ GRAS ืžืชื™ื™ื—ืก ืจืง ืœืžืจื›ื™ื‘ื™ื ื”ืžื™ื•ืขื“ื™ื ืœืžื•ืฆืจื™ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื•ืœื ืœืชื•ืกืคื™ ืชื–ื•ื ื”.

ืื– ืžื” ื›ื•ืœืœ ื”ืชื”ืœื™ืš?

ืคื™ืชื—ืชื ืžื•ืฆืจ ืžื–ื•ืŸ, ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ืชื–ื•ื ืชื™ ื—ื“ืฉ ืื• ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื—ื“ืฉื ื™.
ื•ืžื” ืขื›ืฉื™ื•?

ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื•ืชื•ืกืคื™ ื”ืชื–ื•ื ื” ื ื“ืจืฉื™ื ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ืœืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ืจื’ื•ืœื˜ื•ืจื™ื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืœืœื•ืช ืœืจื•ื‘ ืงื‘ืœืช ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ืžื•ืงื“ื ืžืŸ ื”ืจืฉื•ื™ื•ืช ื˜ืจื ื›ื ื™ืกื” ืœืฉื•ืง. ืกื‘ืš ื”ืชืงื ื•ืช, ื”ื”ื’ื“ืจื•ืช ื”ืฉื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืžืกืœื•ืœื™ ื”ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ื”ืฉื•ื ื™ื ืžืžื“ื™ื ื” ืœืžื“ื™ื ื”, ืžื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ื”ื™ื›ืจื•ืช ืžืขืžื™ืงื” ืขื ื”ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ื”ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื•ืช ื•ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืจื‘ ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœืžื ื•ืข ืขื™ื›ื•ื‘ื™ื ืžื™ื•ืชืจื™ื ื‘ื›ื ื™ืกืช ื”ืžื•ืฆืจ ืœืฉื•ืง. ื›ืžื™ ืฉืžื›ื™ืจื” ื”ื™ื˜ื‘ ืืช ื”ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ื”ืจื’ื•ืœื˜ื•ืจื™ื•ืช ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ื”ืฉื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืฆื‘ืจื” ื™ื“ืข ื•ื ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืจื‘ ื‘ื”ื•ื‘ืœืช ืคืจื•ื™ืงื˜ื™ื ืจื’ื•ืœื˜ื•ืจื™ื™ื ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืขื•ืœื, ืืกื™ื™ืข ืœื›ื ื‘ื›ืœ ืฉืœื‘ื™ ื”ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื›ื•ืœืœื™ื: