โ™ฆ ืชื•ืกืฃ ืชื–ื•ื ื” – Dietary supplement ืื• Food supplement. ืฆื•ืจื” ืžืจื•ื›ื–ืช ืฉืœ ื—ื•ืžืจ ืื• ื—ื•ืžืจื™ื ืชื–ื•ื ืชื™ื™ื ืื• ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ื‘ืขืœื™ ืืคืงื˜ ืชื–ื•ื ืชื™ ืื• ืคื™ืกื™ื•ืœื•ื’ื™, ืฉืชืคืงื™ื“ื” ืœืชืกืฃ ืืช ื”ืชื–ื•ื ื” ื”ื ื•ืจืžืœื™ืช, ื•ื”ื ื™ืชื ืช ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ืงืคืกื•ืœื”, ื›ื“ื•ืจ, ื˜ื‘ืœื™ื”, ื ื•ื–ืœ ืื• ืื‘ืงื”. ืชื•ืกืคื™ ืชื–ื•ื ื” ื”ื™ื ืย ื•ื™ื˜ืžื™ื ื™ื, ืžื™ื ืจืœื™ื, ืฆืžื—ื™ื, ื—ื•ืžืฆื•ืช ืืžื™ื ื•, ืื ื–ื™ืžื™ื ื•ื›ื•' ื•ื›ืŸ ืชืžืฆื™ื•ืช ื•ืชืขืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืฉืœื”ื. ืชื•ืกืฃ ืชื–ื•ื ื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœืฉืืช ืชื•ื™ืช ื”ืžืฆื™ื™ื ืช ืืช ื”ื™ื•ืชื• ืชื•ืกืฃ ืชื–ื•ื ื”. ื‘ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ืชื•ืกืคื™ ืชื–ื•ื ื” ืžืกื•ื•ื’ื™ื ื›ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืื•ืœื ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ืžืกื•ื™ื™ืžื•ืช (ืœื“ื•ื’ืžื” ื‘ืื•ืกื˜ืจืœื™ื”) ื”ื ืžืกื•ื•ื’ื™ื ื› "ืชืจื•ืคื•ืช ืžืฉืœื™ืžื•ืช".

โ™ฆ ืชื•ืกืฃ ืžื–ื•ืŸ – Food additive – ื—ื•ืžืจ ื”ืžื•ืกืฃ ืœืžื–ื•ืŸ ืœืžื˜ืจื” ื˜ื›ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ืช. ืชื•ืกืคื™ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืžืกื•ื•ื’ื™ื ืขืค"ื™ ื”ืคื•ื ืงืฆื™ื” ื”ื˜ื›ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ืช ืฉืœื”ื, ืœื“ื•ื’ืžื” – ืื ื˜ื™ืื•ืงืกื™ื“ื ื˜ื™ื, ืžื•ื ืขื™ ื”ืชื’ื‘ืฉื•ืช, ืžืฉืžืจื™ื ื•ื›ื•'.

โ™ฆ GRASย  –ย ืจืืฉื™ ืชื™ื‘ื•ืช ืฉืœ – Generally Recognized As Safe. ืชื—ืช ื”ืชืงื ื•ืช ื”ืืžืจื™ืงืื™ื•ืช, ื›ืœ ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ื”ืžื•ืกืฃ ืœืžื–ื•ืŸ ืžื•ื’ื“ืจ ื›ืชื•ืกืฃ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื•ื ื“ืจืฉ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ืžืŸ ื” FDA ืœื›ืš ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ื˜ื•ื— ืœืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ. ื–ืืช, ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ื”ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ื ื‘ื“ืง ื•ื”ื•ื›ืจ ืข"ื™ย ืฆื•ื•ืช ืžื•ืžื—ื™ื ื›ื‘ื˜ื•ื— ืœืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื•ื”ื•ื›ืจื– ื› GRAS ืชื—ืช ืชื ืื™ ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื™ื (ืจืฉื™ืžื” ืžื•ื’ื“ืจืช ืฉืœ ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช ืืœื™ื”ื ืžื•ืกืฃ ื”ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ื•ืžื™ื ื•ื ื™ื ืžื•ื’ื“ืจื™ื). ื—ื•ืžืจื™ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื”, ืชื•ืกืคื™ ืชื–ื•ื ื” ื•ืฆื‘ืขื™ ืžืื›ืœ ืื™ื ืย ื ื•ืคืœื™ื ื‘ืืจื”"ื‘ ืชื—ืช ื”ื”ื’ื“ืจื” ืฉืœย ืชื•ืกืฃ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื•ืขืœ ื›ืŸ ืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžื•ื›ืจื™ื ื› GRAS.

โ™ฆ NDI –ย ืจืืฉื™ ืชื™ื‘ื•ืช ืฉืœ New Dietary Ingredient. ืชื—ืช ื”ืชืงื ื•ืช ื”ืืžืจื™ืงืื™ื•ืช, ืจื›ื™ื‘ ืชื–ื•ื ืชื™ ืฉืœื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ืชื•ืกืคื™ ืชื–ื•ื ื” ื‘ืืจื”"ื‘ ืœืคื ื™ 15 ื‘ืื•ืงื˜ื•ื‘ืจ 1994 ืžื•ื’ื“ืจ ื› NDI ื•ื”ื™ืฆืจืŸ ื ื“ืจืฉ ืœื”ื•ื›ื™ื— ืœ FDA ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ื”ืœื™ืš ืฉืœ notification ื›ื™ ื”ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ื‘ื˜ื•ื— ืœืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ, ื˜ืจื ืฉื™ื•ื•ืงื•.
ืชื•ืกืคื™ ืชื–ื•ื ื” ืื™ื ื ื ื“ืจืฉื™ื ืœืงื‘ืœ ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ืžืŸ ื” FDA ื˜ืจื ืฉื™ื•ื•ืง ืœืžืขื˜ ื‘ืžืงืจื” ืฉืœย New Dietary Ingredient.

โ™ฆ Novel Food – ื‘ืื™ืจื•ืคื” – ืžื–ื•ืŸ, ืื• ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ืœืžื–ื•ืŸ, ืืฉืจ ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืงื™ื™ื ื‘ืฉื•ืง ื”ืื™ืจื•ืคื™ ื‘ืžื™ื“ื” ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™ืช ืœืคื ื™ ืžืื™ 1997.
ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืื• ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ืœืžื–ื•ืŸ ื”ืขื•ื ื” ืœื”ื’ื“ืจื” ืฉืœ Novel Food ื ื“ืจืฉ ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืœื™ืš ืฉืœ ื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ื•ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ื˜ืจื ืฉื™ื•ื•ืงื•.

โ™ฆ Substantial equivalence – ืื™ืจื•ืคื” – ืคืจื•ืฆื“ื•ืจื” ืžืงื•ืฆืจืช ืœืื™ืฉื•ืจ ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ื™ื ืฉื ื•ืคืœื™ื ืชื—ืช ื”ื”ื’ื“ืจื” ืฉืœ Novel Food ืืš ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ื•ื›ื™ื— ืฉื”ื ืฉืงื•ืœื™ื ืœืžื–ื•ืŸ ืื• ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืงื™ื™ื ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ื”ื”ืจื›ื‘, ืขืจืš ืชื–ื•ื ืชื™, ืžื˜ืื‘ื•ืœื™ื–ื, ืื•ืคืŸ ื”ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื•ืจืžืช ื”ืžื–ื”ืžื™ื.

โ™ฆ EFSA –ย ืจืืฉื™ ืชื™ื‘ื•ืช ืฉืœ European Food Safety Authority. ื™ื—ื™ื“ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืื™ื—ื•ื“ ื”ืื™ืจื•ืคื™ย ืฉืชืคืงื™ื“ื” ื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ื”ืขืจื›ืช ืกื™ื›ื•ื ื™ืย ืœื’ื‘ื™ ื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื•ืช ืžื–ื•ืŸ.